An interdisciplinary science combining all the other aspects/branches of science to understand the diversity of the nature.



Geology- geo means earth, logy means study; Science related to the study of earth and its ever-changing nature, transforming landforms from millions of years, forming a dynamic and unique place in the whole of universe.



Subject Areas of Earth Science

Engineering Geology- A broad discipline encompasing the construction of buildings and dams, slope stability, mine and quarry design, tunnelling, roads, railways, coastal defences and many other aspects of the built environment.
Environmental geology- The application of geology to solve or emphasize the environment and its problems like water, land use, which includes the involvement of human beings and its surrounding.


Geochemistry- Explores the chemical composition of rocks and fluids and the chemical processes operating within the Earth and on its surface.
Geochronology- The study of determining the age of the rocks, sediments and fossils, by using radio-active isotopes, ancient magnetism of the earth system.


Geomorphology- The study of formation and evolution of the earth’s surface, which involves the study of physico-chemical processes involved on the earth and its effect on the various landforms on earth.
Geophysics- Branch of geology which deals with the study of internal structure of earth, earthquakes, magnetism etc. It is economically applied in the search of mineral ores, oil and gas, groundwater etc.
Hydrogeology- Study of surface as well as groundwater occurrences, flow, mechanism and quality of water.



Igneous Petrology- The study of rocks that are formed from cooling of magma and lava.
Sedimentology- The study of sediments, their accumulation and distribution on the earth’s surface and its significance in understanding the environments in which they were deposited.
Metamorphic Geology- The understanding of how rocks and minerals are affected and transformed when they are subject to heat and pressure applied by forces of earth’s phenomenon.


Oceanography- Includes the geology of the ocean, its landforms created under the sea and along the shores, and the chemistry of the ocean water.
Palaeontology- How different organisms are preserved in the rocks, which provides us a record of ancient climate, environment and refence to the age of the rock.



Planetary science- The study of the geology of other celestial bodies (such as planets and asteroids) in our solar system and beyond.



Stratigraphy- The systematic collection of arrangement of rocks, occurrences, nature and the order in which they are present, giving us the age, nature of deposition and environments under which they were deposited.
Remote Sensing- The use of areal sensors like satellite to detect and classify various landforms and features in the surface of the earth and its application to various fields like mining, oil and gas, town planning etc.
Structural geology- Concerned with rock movement and deformation by folding and faulting, including the study of plate tectonics. How rocks respond to stress, both natural and man-made.


Unconventional energy- This sector includes geothermal energy, wind power and tidal power. Sustainable energy sources is a growing area.
Natural resources- The major sources of energy are oil, coal and natural gas, but uranium and alternative sources such as geothermal energy are also areas of employment for geologists. Mining and quarrying are used to extract metals and minerals with applications from agriculture to high-tech industry.
Natural hazards- The features and effects of phenomena such as earthquakes, landslides, floods, volcanoes etc. and the importance of forecasting, resilience and minimisation of damage

Duties and Job of a Geologist in various fields

Volcanologist- Usually work on young and active volcanoes, to understand the nature of occurrence, behaviour, and distribution. Which can give us knowledge about the history of eruption and predict what and how it might erupt in future.
Sedimentologist- Collect and analyse field samples using various collection technique and subject them to various chemical tests to provide information about the composition of the sediments, which can be useful in understanding the environment of deposition.
Seismologist- Carrying out research on earthquakes and seismic hazard assessment. Helping us understand how scientific information is applied in disaster management and risk reduction activities in earthquake prone zones.
Environmental Geologist- Analysing how the natural and manmade activities can impact humans and its surrounding environment. Giving us an insight of how we may get affected by behaviour of the earth’s dynamic system.
Geophysicist- A geophysicist provides a link between physics and geology. You use the physical properties of the Earth to make geological interpretations. Geophysical data provides a 3D model of complex geological structures beneath the earth surface. A geophysicist works with a team of geologists, reservoir engineers and drilling engineers to identify where to drill, how much reserves are stored in the structure and what data to collect when we get there.
Geochemist- Work of a geochemist is basically to collect samples from the field and test it in the laboratory using sophisticated instruments to give details of the chemistry of the collected material. The reports provided are then used by industries to carry out the planning and development of projects which involve major decisions and investments.
Remote sensing geologist- Work of a remote sensing geologist involves processing and interpretation of remotely acquired data, ranging from satellite to airborne sensors. Extensive softwares are used for processing Images received from these sensors, which is refined and then analysed to give information regarding the field where projects like oil and gas, mining or civil engineering projects are concerned.
Engineering Geologist-Broadly concerned with the engineering characteristics of the ground, involving processes that modify surface and sub-surface geology for building an environment for engineering purpose- mining, oil and gas, civil projects like tunnels, dams, roads etc.
Exploration Geologist (Mining/ Petroleum)- Geological mapping, logging and interpretation for the search and production of mineral resources/ oil and gas. Combine the geological, geophysical and geochemical aspects to target the reserves. Prepare strategies and plans to excavate reserves in the most economical way possible.